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Two Brothers 1748 Passenger List Introduction & Summary

 

From 1710 until 1717 German immigrants arrived in Philadelphia on British ships on a regular basis.  In 1717 the issue became a matter of concern to the Provincial Council and the new Governor, William Keith.  He observed with alarm that “Pennsylvania is filling up with Germans”.   He further expressed concerns that they do not speak the same language or have the same “constitutions” as the British subjects do.  They come without producing any appropriate certificates; we don’t know where they came from or where they settle.  They may be foes to the British King and his Government or to the province of Pennsylvania and its officials and government.

 

In short William Keith presented a strong fear of “uncontrolled immigration” by the German speaking immigrants arriving in increasing numbers into Pennsylvania.  The Provincial Council heeded his message and, at his urging, passed an act requiring that ship masters provide a list of all passengers on ships importing German immigrants which recently arrived in Philadelphia.  The act also required the immigrants to “give assurances of their being well affected to His Majesty and his Government”.

 

In short order three ship masters complied with the new requirements by providing lists of the passengers on ships they had recently sailed into the docks of Philadelphia on the Delaware River.  It is a mystery that for ten years no other lists appear in the Provincial records.  However, ships continued to arrive with German immigrants in growing numbers throughout the period from 1717 to 1727.

 

In 1727 the issue was revisited by the Provincial Council at the urging of the Governor.  According to the Pennsylvania Colonial Records; First series, volume III the act stated the following:

 

“That the masters of vessels importing Germans and others from the continent of Europe, shall be examined whether they have leave granted to them by the Court of Great Britain for the importation of these foreigners, and that a List be taken of all these people, their several occupations, and the place from whence they came, and shall be further examined touching their intentions in coming hither; and that a writing be drawn up for them to sign, declaring their allegiance and subjection to the King of Great Britain, and fidelity to themselves peaceably towards all his Majesty’s subjects, and observe and conform to the Laws of England and the Government of Pennsylvania.”

 

This time the act had the intended impact on recordkeeping for German speaking immigrants into Pennsylvania through the port of Philadelphia.  As a result from 1727 until 1776 hundreds of lists of German speaking immigrants arriving steadily throughout that period became a part of the Colonial records.  Today those lists are preserved in the State archives in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 

 

Those lists have been published first by I. Daniel Rupp in 1898 (2nd rev. ed.) in a groundbreaking work titled A Collection of Upwards of Thirty Thousand Names of Germans, Swiss, Dutch, French and Other Immigrants in Pennsylvania from 1727 to 1776.  A later publication which is considered the definitive work on the subject was published by Ralph B. Strassburger and William J. Hinke in 1934.  It was titled Pennsylvania German Pioneers; A Publication of the Original Lists of Arrivals in the Port of Philadelphia from 1727-1808.

 

The lists prepared by the captains of the various ships importing German speaking immigrants were not as detailed as the act of the Assembly intended them to be.  The captains interpreted the law with a significant degree of individual interpretation.  As a general rule only males aged 16 and above were listed.  Women and children (including males beneath 16 years of age) were not listed by most captains. 

 

Furthermore, although the law also called for the lists prepared by the captains to include the occupations and places of origin of the immigrants, for the most part, these details were omitted.  Occasionally at the beginning of a list prepared by the captain a broad geographic area was mentioned.  In the heading paragraph introducing some lists the passengers were said to be from the “Palatinate” or “Baden” or “Württemberg”, & etc. 

 

How unfortunate that the law was not enforced as written.  Thousands of descendants from these German pioneers could have been spared countless years of effort trying to uncover such important details about our Germanic forefathers, especially the exact village of origin in the old country.  Nevertheless, those who descend from these courageous pathfinders can be grateful to at least have a record of the names of their ancestors, when they arrived, who they traveled with & etc.  These details provide some basis for an intelligent search for the additional desired information.

 

In the introduction to their standard setting publication, Strassburger and Hinke make the following observations about the captains’ lists of German passengers imported to Philadelphia from Europe in the 18th century:

 

“How much trouble and research they could have saved present-day historians.  But alas, none of the captains paid the slightest attention to the last two points of the order of Council.  Neither the occupations nor the places of domicile in Europe were ever recorded by them…

 

Looking at the captains’ lists as a whole, we must say, that they are of all sorts and descriptions.  Each one made his list to suit himself, without any reference to the orders of the Council…

 

Each captain wrote his list on a large, loose sheet of paper, which he handed to the magistrate at Philadelphia, sitting as a Court…

 

What became of the lists of the captains, handed in on loose sheets of paper?  Sad to relate, most of them were lost.  Of the 324 ships arriving between 1727 and 1775, we have the captains’ lists of only 138 ships.”

 

Fortunately, the captains’ list in its original form still exists in the Pennsylvania State Archives for the ship “Two Brothers” which arrived in Philadelphia on September 15, 1748 bringing Johann Paul Jünger to America.

 

In the Strassburger and Hinke publication of ship lists for German Pioneers, the captains’ lists, when they exist for a given ship, are designated as [List # A].  In the case of the “Two Brothers” 1748 ship list prepared by Captain Thomas Arnot, the designation is [List 120 A] because it is the 120th list presented in the publication of ship lists.

 

A second group of lists exist for the ships bringing German speaking immigrants into Philadelphia from 1727 to 1776.  These lists are categorized as the “B” lists in the Strassburger and Hinke publication.  The “B” lists are for the lists of signatures of the German immigrants as they took their required oath of allegiance to the King of Great Britain and to the authorities of the Province of Pennsylvania.

 

From the Colonial Records of Pennsylvania, the following wording for the oath of allegiance is presented:

 

“We subscribers, Natives and Late Inhabitants of the Palatinate upon the Rhine & Places adjacent, having transported ourselves and Families into this Province of Pensilvania, a Colony subject to the Crown of Great Britain, in hopes and Expectation of finding a Retreat & peaceable Settlement therein, Do Solemnly promise & Engage, that We will be faithful & bear true Allegiance to his present MAJESTY KING GEORGE THE SECOND, and his Successors, Kings of Great Britain, and will be faithful to the Proprietor of this Province; And that we will demean ourselves peaceably to all His said Majesties Subjects, and strictly observe & conform to the Laws of England and of the Province, to the utmost of our Power and best of our understanding.”

 

Strassburger and Hinke offer the following insights into the “B” lists comprising the oaths of allegiance for the German immigrant ships:

 

“In addition to the captains’ lists we have the lists of the signers of the oath of allegiance.  On these lists we naturally expect to find the signatures of all the male adults on the ships.  But here we meet with another disappointment.  What we actually find, at least on the first seventy lists, are the names of all the male adults who were well on the day of signing and were able to appear at the Court House.  If any of the male passengers were sick, they were not required to sign later.  Beginning in August 1739, we find that the Clerk of Council signed the names of the absent passengers.  But, in the earlier lists, there is often a serious discrepancy between the male adults that were on board and those that actually signed…”

 

“The names of these signers of the oath of allegiance were also written on large, loose sheets of paper.  The result was the same as noted in the case of the captains’ lists.  Most of them were lost.  Only 138 of these lists of signatures of the oath of allegiance have survived to the present day.  But they are not all of the same ships as the captains’ lists.”

 

Fortunately, the oath of allegiance list in its original form still exists in the Pennsylvania State Archives for the ship “Two Brothers” which arrived in Philadelphia on September 15, 1748 bringing Johann Paul Jünger to America.

 

In the Strassburger and Hinke publication of ship lists for German Pioneers, the oath of allegiance lists, when they exist for a given ship, are designated as [List # B].  In the case of the “Two Brothers” 1748 oath of allegiance list the designation is [List 120 B] because it is the 120th list presented in the publication of ship lists.

 

A third set of lists designated in the Strassburger and Hinke publication as the “C” lists is for a set of lists which are the signatures of adult males taking an oath of abjuration.  This set of lists of signatures has been preserved in original form in six bound volumes in the Pennsylvania State Archives.  Because of this method of preservation they have escaped the sad fate of many of the captains’ lists and oaths of allegiance lists.

 

The oath of abjuration lists were really for two additional oaths separate and different from the oath of allegiance.  The focus of these oaths was, according to Strassburger and Hinke, “aimed against Catholics, (which) was one of the results of the great upheaval in England, which led to the overthrow of the Catholic house of the Stuarts (who were Catholics) and the establishment of the Protestant princes of the house of Hanover, as kings of England, in 1689.”

 

Strassburger and Hinke make the following additional observations about the “C” oath of abjuration lists:

 

“Internal evidence shows that the two lists of signatures (lists B and C) were made before different clerks, seated probably at different desks.  This can be inferred from the fact that when the passengers were unable to write and the clerk wrote the name for them, the same name is often spelled in two different ways on the two lists.  Besides, the chirography of the clerks differs on the two lists.  These facts show that there were two clerks, each superintending the making of one list…”

 

“It was indeed a fortunate circumstance for us that this oath of abjuration was prescribed in 1729.  It caused the names of the signers to be entered into bound books, which have escaped the fate of the other two lists.  Beginning with the ninth list, on August 17, 1729, these lists run continuously, with but two omissions, down to the 324th list, on October 9, 1775.  It is therefore, this third set of signatures which is alone complete.  Instead of being merely a copy of the other list it is really the backbone of the whole series of lists, and the most important set, from which we derive most of our information regarding the ships and their passengers.”

 

The language of the two oaths which together comprise the oath of abjuration to which the German speaking adult males signed their names on a separate list is given in Strassburger and Hinke.  The first of the two oaths is reasonable in its length.  The second oath is so lengthy and obtuse that it reminds me that there is nothing new under the sun…Attorneys no doubt constructed this oath and, in all probability, were paid by the word just as I suspect they are today!  Even with German translators available at the signing, I doubt many of the immigrants understood much more than the gist of the legalese being read to them.

 

Remember while reading these that the focus originated from the struggle between Protestant and Catholic forces in Europe; the same struggle that caused such widespread suffering throughout the Rhineland which served as an important motivation for downtrodden Germans to seek a better life in Pennsylvania and other places outside their own lands.

 

“The first of these oaths reads:

I A B do solemnly & sincerely promise & declare that I will be true & faithful to King George the Second and do sincerely and truly Profess Testifie & Declare that I do from my heart abhor, detest & renounce as impious & heretical that wicked Doctrine & Position that Princes Excommunicated or deprived by the Pope or any Authority of the See of Rome may be deposed or murthered by their Subjects or any other whatsoever.  And I do declare that no Foreign Prince Person Prelate State or Potentate hath or ought to have any Power Jurisdiction Superiority Preeminence or Authority Ecclesiastical or Spiritual within the Realm of Great Britain or Dominions thereunto belonging.”

 

The second oath reads:

“I A B do solemnly sincerely and truly acknowledge profess testify & declare that King George the Second is lawful & rightful King of the Realm of Great Britain & of all others his Dominions & Countries thereunto belonging, And I do solemnly & sincerely declare that I do believe the Person pretending to be Prince of Wales during the Life of the late King James, and since his Decease pretending to be & taking upon himself the Stile & Title of King of Great Britain hath not any Right or Title whatsoever to the Crown of the Realm of Great Britain, nor any other the Dominions thereunto belonging.  And I do renounce & refuse any Allegiance or obedience to him & do solemnly promise that I will be true and faithful, & bear true allegiance to King George the Second & to him will be faithful against all traitorous Conspiracies & attempts whatsoever which shall be made against his Person Crown & Dignity & I will do my best Endeavours to disclose & make known to King George the Second & his Successors all Treasons and traitorous Conspiracies which I shall Know to be made against him or any of them.  And I will be true & faithful to the Succession of the Crown against him the said James & all other Persons whatsoever as the same is & stands settled by An Act Entituled An Act declaring the Rights & Liberties of the Subject & settling the Succession of the Crown to the late Queen Anne & the Heirs of her Body being Protestants, and as the same by one other Act Entituled An Act for the further Limitation of the Crown & better securing the Rights & Liberties of the subject is & stands settled & entailed after the Decease of the said late Queen, & for Default of Issue of the said late Queen, to the late Princess Sophia Electoress & Dutchess Dowager of Hannover & the Heirs of her Body being Protestants; and all these things I do plainly & sincerely acknowledge promise & declare according to these express Words by me spoken & of the same Words, without any Equivocation mental Evasion or secret Reservation whatsoever.  And I do make this Recognition Acknowledgement Renunciation & Promise heartily willingly & truly.”

 

The oath of abjuration list in its original form still exists in the Pennsylvania State Archives for the ship “Two Brothers” which arrived in Philadelphia on September 15, 1748 bringing Johann Paul Jünger to America.

 

In the Strassburger and Hinke publication of ship lists for German Pioneers, the oath of abjuration lists, for a given ship, are designated as [List # C].  In the case of the “Two Brothers” 1748 oath of abjuration list the designation is [List 120 C] because it is the 120th list presented in the publication of ship lists.

 

Because all three original lists, the captain’s list, the oath of allegiance list and the oath of abjuration list still exist intact in the Pennsylvania State Archives for the ship “Two Brothers” which arrived in Philadelphia on September 15, 1748, Strassburger and Hinke’s publication includes all three lists.  Furthermore, since List B and List C are comprised of the actual signatures of the male passengers aged 16 and above, Volume II of their publication includes photographic images of those lists.

 

As a result, it is possible to view the signatures of the immigrants on the ship Johann Paul Jünger came to America on in 1748.  However, when the clerks sitting at two separate desks were overseeing the signature process for the oath of allegiance and the oath of abjuration, occasionally an immigrant could not read or write.  In such cases, the clerks would write the name of the immigrant for them and require the passenger to “make his mark” between his given name(s) and his family surname.

 

These instances can be seen as they actually appeared in the Volume II facsimile of Strassburger and Hinke’s publication.  Johann Paul Jünger’s name was written by a clerk for both the oath of allegiance list and the oath of abjuration list.  In both cases he “made his mark” between Paul and Jünger.  It should also be noted that the name as written by the two clerks is Johan Paul Junger.  Only one letter n is at the end of Johan(n) and there is no umlaut over the letter u in Ju(ü)nger. 

 

These clerks were English speaking authorities who struggled with their understanding of German language conventions.  We know that the family name is properly spelled in German as Jünger not Junger because of how Paul’s son Anthony signed his name on legal documents including the estate file documents for his older brother George who died in young adulthood in 1790.  Furthermore, the tombstones for three of Anthony’s children who died in young adulthood between 1813 and 1816 predeceasing Anthony who died in 1829 are in German.  On those tombstones the family name is spelled Jünger with the umlaut over the letter ü. 

 

Whether Paul’s first name was spelled in German as Johann or Johan is a little less certain to know for sure.  Most often the German spelling in German church records is Johann with two nn’s.  However, even in original German church records often the handwriting of the person recording the event is so difficult to read that it is hard to say whether Johan or Johann was intended.  To be honest I have adopted the more typical Germanic spelling of Johann when in reality, I have not seen any definitive documentation in German records proving that to be the proper spelling for Paul’s first name.

 

From Volume II the following images were scanned of the “signature” for Johann Paul Jünger or Johan Paul Junger as written by the English clerks:

 

“B” List Oath of Allegiance signature:

 

 

“C” List Oath of Abjuration signature:

 

 

Notice the differences in handwriting illustrating a point made in Strassburger and Hinke’s publication.  In cases where the names were written by clerks because the German immigrant could not write his own name, noticeable differences exist.  This strongly suggests that two different clerks kept two different lists for the separate oaths of allegiance and abjuration.

 

In the ship list which follows for the “Two Brothers” arriving in Philadelphia on September 15, 1748 with Johann Paul Jünger on board, I have transcribed the lists exactly from Strassburger and Hinke’s publication of 1934 titled Pennsylvania German Pioneers; A Publication of the Original Lists of Arrivals in the Port of Philadelphia from 1727-1808

 

According to the introduction the order of names on these lists are exactly as they appear on the original documents which are in safe keeping in the Pennsylvania State archives.  This is a very important feature of the lists in Strassburger and Hinke’s publication.  It is a vast improvement over the lists compiled by Rupp in 1898 in his publication titled A Collection of Upwards of Thirty Thousand Names of Germans, Swiss, Dutch, French and Other Immigrants in Pennsylvania from 1727 to 1776.  In that publication the order of names was often rearranged by Rupp obliterating insights of possible interrelationships among the passengers.

 

When a signature on the “B” or “C” list was written by an English clerk the lists in Strassburger and Hinke’s publication shows that fact with an indicator between the given name and surname of an immigrant.  Those indicators include (X), (O) or (+).  From a review of the lists as typewritten on Paul’s ship most of the immigrants did sign their own names.  Paul was in the minority 10% or so who had their names written by a clerk in lieu of the immigrant signing his own name.

 

A number of the immigrants on the ship Paul came to Philadelphia on have been traced to their European village of origin by professional published researchers.  The villages of origins for fellow passengers which I have found from a review of published sources are given on the ship list which follows.  The published source is also indicated with the appropriate page number in that source specified.

 

At the bottom of the list I have noted the details of the published sources as to author and title and other pertinent information regarding the publication.

 

It has been previously noted that only males 16 years and above were required to take the oaths and sign their names at the court house to that effect.  As a result, women and children who accompanied those men whose names appear on the list are not on the lists.  Studies by scholars indicate that, on average, a ratio of 5 passengers to 2 signers prevailed overall on German speaking 18th century immigrant ships.  Applying that ratio suggests that with approximately 100 signers on the 1748 “Two Brothers” there would have been about 250 total passengers or about 150 women and children.

 

In the instances where professional researchers have found and published the villages of origin based on a review of European church and civil records for passengers on Paul’s ship, in a number of cases, other family members (women and children including males under 16) were found to have accompanied the signers of the oaths.

 

Strassburger and Hinke’s lists for the 1748 “Two Brothers” indicate that 105 names appear on the captains list but only 99 names appear on the “B” and “C” lists for the oaths of allegiance and abjuration.  By 1748 clerks at the court house were supposed to enter the names of male passengers 16 years and older who stayed on the ship because of sickness.  Before 1739 these individuals simply did not sign the oaths if they were sick according to Strassburger and Hinke in their introduction.

 

It is a mystery why the names of 6 male passengers who appear on the captain’s list do not appear on either the “B” or “C” lists indicating those 6 did not sign the oath of allegiance or the oath of abjuration.  A point of curiosity in this regard is that in all but one case the omitted names were for males who were next to another passenger on the captain’s list with the same last name.  They were brothers or sons or fathers of other male passengers who did sign both oaths. 

 

Perhaps, they were permitted to stay on the ship to keep a watch over the women and children while their father, son or brother went to the court house to fulfill the legal requirements.  The 6 passengers who are in this group are evident on my transcription of the ship list which follows in that their names appear in the first column for the captain’s list but are missing in the “B” and “C” list column.

 

Two Brothers 1748 Passenger Lists

 

 

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